The hard drive, on both my computer at the office, and the one at
home, seems to be losing hard drive space. How can I clean out space
without losing valuable information needed?
Every other day, do the following: 1.) Click on Start, Windows Explorer,
then Windows. Scroll down to and then open Temporary Internet Files
- You will see four cache folders there. Highlight all the images,
etc. in there,from the top to the bottom, holding down the Shift
and Control key at the same time, then right click, and delete.
2.) Then scroll back up to Program Files (still under Windows Explorer),
click on this to open, click on Netscape, then Users, then your
name, then cache. You will again find a whole bunch of files accumulated
in here. Do the same highlight all, right click, delete. If they
can't be deleted for some reason, it will tell you. Then just go
back and redo, leaving that file alone.
3.) Go back and click
on the Start button on the Win95 shell, click on Find, click
on Files or Folders - a box called Find All Files will open up for
you - should have Look in (C:) drive already entered. Type
*.tmp in the Named field, and hit enter or the button Find Now.
If you have any temporary files stored on the hard drive, they will
show up. You now can repeat the process of highlighting and deleting.
We never delete anything that has that day's date on, just as a
precaution. You can also do a search of other cache in this same
method as above here for *.tmp, by simply typing in *.iw.
Some days you'll find
none, other days you'll find oodles! These are graphics, htm
files, etc. that wind up on our hard drives when we browse the Net,
or our machine crashes and we have to reboot. 4.) Now go to Recycle
Bin (should be on your shell), right click, and double click on
Empty Recycle Bin. Look at how much memory you have left on the
hard drive before you do this, and after, and you'll be amazed!
In Windows Explorer (Start,
right mouse click, Explore) use F3 or CTRL+F to search out all files
with .tmp extension by inserting *.tmp in the location box. Delete
all those tmp files except for those with todays date.
| Hardware The physical components of the computer
Software The programs or instructions that tell the
computer what to do.
CPU The brain of the computer or central processing
ROM The permanent memory that is built in your computer.
This is read only.
RAM The computer's working memory, sometimes called
Megabyte Approximately a million bytes.
Gigabyte Approximately a billion bytes (or 1,000
Input Device The hardware that is used to pass information
into the computer.
Output Device The hardware that receives and dislplays
information coming from the computer.
Modem The device that allows your computer to talk
to other computers over a telephone line.
Monitor A video or computer display device.
Laser Printer A printer that uses both laser and
photographic technology to produce high quality output.
Printer The hardware that provides printed output
from the computer.
Hard Copy A printed copy of computer output.
Compact Disc A disc on which a laser has digitally
recorded information such as audio, video, or computer data.
Hard Disk A fixed, large-capacity magnetic storage
medium for computer data.
Floppy Disk A portable magnetic storage medium for
computer data that allows users to randomly access information.
Graphical User Interface The use of graphical symbols
instead of text commands to control common computer functions
such as copying programs and disks.
Icon A small picture or symbol respresenting a computer
hardware function or component.
Ink-jet Printer A type of printer that forms letters
on the page by shooting tiny electrically charged droplets
Internet computers connected throughout the world
server manages and delivers info. for client computer
PSP Public Service Provider
WWW World Wide Web
Browser software that allows user to access & View
Netscape popular graphical browser
homepage first web page viewed
URL Uniform Resource Locator
HTML HyperText Markup Language
HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol
Hyperlinks highlighted words that take you to another
Firewall security measures designed to protect
host computer on the Internet
domain name of computer on the Internet
bookmark keeps a web address handy
Archie finds files on Net
Gopher finds info. by using menus
FTP File Transfer Protocol
Address identification code
channel medium through which information
receiver person or device that recieves
source person or device that sends information
telecommunications transmissin of info.
from one location to another by electronic means
BBS bulletin board system for posting messages
online directly connected to the CPU
modem device used to connect computer to
baud the speed of a communications channel
email electronic mail
password way to limit access to computer
ATM automated teller machine for banking
EFT electronic funds transfer
Boolean search criteria where two or more
conditions must be true for successful search
keywords words using in programming that
instruct the computer to perform a function
virus program designed to attach itself
to other programs; it can damage data files and
cause system failures
hacking persistent efforts to use a computer
to gain illegal or unauthorized entry to another
phonefraud illegal use of telephones or
lines to avoid charges
satellite earth-orbiting man-made object
off of which telecommunicatin signals and computer
data are bounced
network system of linked computers and
other devices that allows computers to share and
SIG Special Interest Group--group of people
with common interests who share info. about their
interests on a BBS
SYSOP Systems Operator; manages BBS
piracy duplication & distribution of copyrighted
vandalism damage & destroy computer records,
information, or network
Test your knowledge of the Internet
1.) Which of these computers were released in 1977?
a. Commodore PET
b. Apple II
c. Tandy Radio Shack's TRS-80
d. None of the above
e. All of the above
2. What year saw the debut of the Macintosh?
3. Who is generally considered the father of the computer?
a. Bill Gates
b. Charles Babbage
c. Albert Einstein
d. John Vincent Atanasoff
4. Who invented the mouse?
a. Steve Jobs
b. Steve Wozniak
c. Doug Englebart
d. Thomas Edison
5. What company invented the 3.5-inch floppy disk?
6. In what year was MS-DOS
7. Who is Nolan Bushnell?
a. Inventor of the modem
b. Founder of Maxis
c. Founder of Compaq
d. Founder of Atari
8. What was the first computer
with a graphical user (GUI) interface?
a. Radio Shack TRS-1000
b. Commodore 64
c. Apple Lisa
d. Apple II
9. Which of the following
was introduced in 1985?
a. Laptop computers
c. Windows 85
10. When was the World Wide
to send your answers, and we'll let you know how you
Humor Viruses (read at your
a vital part of your hard disk then re-attaches it.
(But that part will never work again.)
VIRUS-Your 200MB hard drive suddenly shrinks to 80MB,
and then slowly expands back to 200MB.
three minutes it tells you what great service you
three minutes it reminds you that you're paying too
much for the AT&T virus.
VIRUS-This revolutionary virus does not horse around.
It warns you of impending hard disk attack -- once
if by LAN, twice if by C/:
CORRECT VIRUS-Never calls itself a "virus," but instead
refers to itself as an "electronic microorganism."
PBS Virus -
Your computer stops every few minutes to ask for money.
RIGHT TO LIFE
VIRUS-Won't allow you to delete a file, regardless
of how old it is. If you attempt to erase a file,
it requires you to first see a counselor about possible
VIRUS-Activates every component in your system, just
before the whole damn thing quits.
VIRUS-It would be a great virus, but it refuses to
VIRUS-Colorizes your monochrome monitor.
VIRUS-Terminates and stays resident. It'll be back.
VIRUS #1-Prevents your system from spawning any child
process without joining into a binary network.
VIRUS #2-Their is sumthing rong wit your komputer,
ewe jsut cant figyour out watt!
ECONOMIST VIRUS-Nothing works, but all your diagnostic
software says everything is fine.
NEW WORLD ORDER
VIRUS-Probably harmless, but it makes a lot of people
really mad just thinking about it.
VIRUS-Divides your hard disk into hundreds of little
units, each of which does practically nothing, but
all of which claim to be the most important part of
percent of the PCs infected will lose 38 percent of
their data 14 percent of the time (plus or minus a
3.5 percent margin or error).
sure that it's bigger than any other file.
ADAM AND EVE
VIRUS-Takes a couple of bytes out of your Apple computer.
VIRUS #1-The computer locks up, screens splits erratically
with a message appearing on each half blaming the
other side for the problem.
VIRUS #2-Runs every program on the hard drive simultaneously
but doesn't allow the user to accomplish anything.
in Dallas, but your data is in Singapore.
computer becomes obsessed with marrying its own motherboard.
computer stops every few minutes to ask for money.
computer gets fat, slow and lazy, then self-destructs
-- only to resurface at shopping malls and service
stations across rural America.
VIRUS-Causes your printer to become a paper shredder.
data won't appear unless you buy new cables, power
supply and a set of shocks.
VIRUS-Your programs can never be found again.
your computer shut down as an act of mercy.
VIRUS-Sings you a song (slightly off key) on boot-up,
then subtracts money from your Quicken account and
spends it all on expensive shoes it purchases through
STAR TREK VIRUS-Invades
your system in places where no virus has gone before.
VIRUS-Tests your system for a day, finds nothing wrong
and sends you a bill. It starts by boldly stating,
"Read my docs ... no new files!" on the screen. It
proceeds to fill up all the free space on your hard
drive with new files, then blames it on the Congressional
NEW YORK JETS
VIRUS-Makes your 486/50 machine perform like a 286/AT.
claims it feels threatened by the other files on your
PC and erases them in "self-defense."
VIRUS-Your PC makes frequent mistakes and comes in
last in the reviews, but you still love it.
VIRUS-Claims that if you don't send it a million dollars,
its programmer will take it back.
claims that it did not, could not and would not delete
two of your files and vows to find the virus that
Voice Mail Options From an Overworked Answering Machine
* If you are obsessive/compulsive, press one repeatedly.
* If you are
codependent, ask someone to press 2 for you.
* If you have
a multiple personality disorder, press 3, 4, 5, and
* If you are
schizophrenic, a little voice will tell you what number
* If you are
manic depressive, it doesn't matter what number you
press, no one will ever return your call.
* If you have
attention deficit disorder, we can't help you because
you have already hung up.
the following & keep track of how many yes answers
* I may forget
other things, but I've got my email address &
web site memorized.
* I use the
computer so much, my significant other threatens to
I check my email before I brush my teeth in the morning.
* I not only
use the little smiley-con's in my email, I put them
* I think Bill
Gates is kind of cute, even though I'm embarrassed
to admit it.
* I now have
more friends in the 'virtual world' than I do in the
* I get an
empty feeling when I turn off my modem.
* I laugh at
people who have 9600-baud problems.
* When using
my word processor, I find myself typing 'com' after
* I occasionally
introduce myself as 'so and so... at such and such.com'
to send your answers, and we'll let you know how
of Internet Terms
Not quite clear on all that computer terminology?
Here's a glossary of information to help you become more techno-savvy.
A | B | C
| D | E | F
| G | H | I
| J | K | L
| M | N | O
| P | Q | R
| S | T | U
| V | W | X
| Y | Z
- (Advanced Digital Network) -- Usually refers to a 56Kbps
- Anonymous FTP
- A small Java program that can be embedded in an
HTML page. Applets differ from full-fledged Java applications
in that they are not allowed to access certain resources on
the local computer, such as files and serial devices (modems,
printers, etc.), and are prohibited from communicating with
most other computers across a network. The current rule is
that an applet can only make an Internet connection to the
computer from which the applet was sent.
- A tool (software) for finding files stored on anonymous
FTP sites. You need to know the exact file name or a substring
- (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) -- The precursor
to the Internet. Developed in the late 60s and
early 70s by the US Department of Defense as an experiment
in wide-area-networking that would survive a nuclear war.
- (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) --
This is the de facto world-wide standard for the code numbers
used by computers to represent all the upper and lower-case
Latin letters, numbers, punctuation, etc. There are 128 standard
ASCII codes each of which can be represented by a 7 digit
binary number: 0000000 through 1111111.
- A high-speed line or series of connections that forms a
major pathway within a network. The term is relative as a
backbone in a small network will likely be much smaller
than many non-backbone lines in a large network.
- How much stuff you can send through a connection. Usually
measured in bits-per-second. A full page of English text is
about 16,000 bits. A fast modem can move about 15,000 bits
in one second. Full-motion full-screen video would require
roughly 10,000,000 bits-per-second, depending on compression.
- In common usage the baud rate of a modem is how
many bits it can send or receive per second. Technically,
baud is the number of times per second that the carrier signal
shifts value - for example a 1200 bit-per-second modem actually
runs at 300 baud, but it moves 4 bits per baud (4 x 300 =
1200 bits per second).
- (Bulletin Board System) -- A computerized meeting and announcement
system that allows people to carry on discussions, upload
and download files, and make announcements without the people
being connected to the computer at the same time. There are
many thousands (millions?) of BBSs around the world,
most are very small, running on a single IBM clone PC with
1 or 2 phone lines. Some are very large and the line between
a BBS and a system like CompuServe gets crossed at some point,
but it is not clearly drawn.
- (BINary HEXadecimal) -- A method for converting non-text
files (non-ASCII) into ASCII. This is needed because
Internet e-mail can only handle ASCII.
- (Binary DigIT) -- A single digit number in base-2, in other
words, either a 1 or a zero. The smallest unit of computerized
data. Bandwidth is usually measured in bits-per-second.
- (Because Its Time NETwork (or Because Its There
NETwork)) -- A network of educational sites separate
from the Internet, but e-mail is freely exchanged between
BITNET and the Internet. Listservs®, the
most popular form of e-mail discussion groups, originated
on BITNET. BITNET machines are usually mainframes running
the VMS operating system, and the network is probably the
only international network that is shrinking.
- (Bits-Per-Second) -- A measurement of how fast data is
moved from one place to another. A 28.8 modem can move
28,800 bits per second.
- A Client program (software) that is used to look
at various kinds of Internet resources.
- (By The Way) -- A shorthand appended to a comment written
in an online forum.
- A set of Bits that represent a single character. Usually
there are 8 Bits in a Byte, sometimes more, depending on how
the measurement is being made.
- Certificate Authority
- An issuer of Security Certificates used in SSL
- (Common Gateway Interface) -- A set of rules that describe
how a Web Server communicates with another piece
of software on the same machine, and how the other piece of
software (the CGI program) talks to the web server.
Any piece of software can be a CGI program if it handles input
and output according to the CGI standard.
Usually a CGI program is a small program that takes data from
a web server and does something with it, like putting the
content of a form into an e-mail message, or turning the data
into a database query. You can often see that a CGI program
is being used by seeing cgi-bin in a URL, but
- The most common name of a directory on a web server in
which CGI programs are stored.
The bin part of cgi-bin is a shorthand
version of binary, because once upon a time, most
programs were refered to as binaries. In real
life, most programs found in cgi-bin directories are text
files -- scripts that are executed by binaries located elsewhere
on the same machine.
- A software program that is used to contact and obtain data
from a Server software program on another computer,
often across a great distance. Each Client program
is designed to work with one or more specific kinds of Server
programs, and each Server requires a specific kind
of Client. A Web Browser is a specific kind
- Most often used to refer to having a server that
belongs to one person or group physically located on an Internet-connected
network that belongs to another person or group. Usually
this is done because the server owner wants their machine
to be on a high-speed Internet connection and/or they do not
want the security risks of having the server on thier own
- The most common meaning of Cookie on the Internet
refers to a piece of information sent by a Web Server
to a Web Browser that the Browser software is expected
to save and to send back to the Server whenever the browser
makes additional requests from the Server.
Depending on the type of Cookie used, and the Browsers
settings, the Browser may accept or not accept the Cookie,
and may save the Cookie for either a short time or a long
time. Cookies might contain information such as login or registration
information, online shopping cart information,
user preferences, etc.
When a Server receives a request from a Browser that includes
a Cookie, the Server is able to use the information stored
in the Cookie. For example, the Server might customize what
is sent back to the user, or keep a log of particular users
Cookies are usually set to expire after a predetermined amount
of time and are usually saved in memory until the Browser
software is closed down, at which time they may be saved to
disk if their expire time has not been reached.
Cookies do not read your hard drive and send
your life story to the CIA, but they can be used to gather
more information about a user than would be possible without
- Cyberpunk was originally a cultural sub-genre of science
fiction taking place in a not-so-distant, dystopian, over-industrialized
society. The term grew out of the work of William Gibson and
Bruce Sterling and has evolved into a cultural label encompassing
many different kinds of human, machine, and punk attitudes.
It includes clothing and lifestyle choices as well.
- Term originated by author William Gibson in his novel Neuromancer
the word Cyberspace is currently used to describe the whole
range of information resources available through computer
- The digital version of literati, it is a reference to a
vague cloud of people seen to be knowledgeable, hip, or otherwise
in-the-know in regards to the digital revolution.
- (Digital Subscriber Line) -- A method for moving data over
regular phone lines. A DSL circuit is much faster than a regular
phone connection, and the wires coming into the subscribers
premises are the same (copper) wires used for regular phone
service. A DSL circuit must be configured to connect two specific
locations, similar to a leased line.
A commonly discussed configuration of DSL allows downloads
at speeds of up to 1.544 megabits (not megabytes)
per second, and uploads at speeds of 128 kilobits per second.
This arrangement is called ADSL: Asymmetric Digital
Another common configuration is symmetrical: 384 Kilobits
per second in both directions.
In theory ADSL allows download speeds of up to 9 megabits
per second and upload speeds of up to 640 kilobits per second.
DSL is now a popular alternative to Leased Lines and
ISDN, being faster than ISDN and less costly than traditional
- Domain Name
- The unique name that identifies an Internet site. Domain
Names always have 2 or more parts, separated by dots. The
part on the left is the most specific, and the part on the
right is the most general. A given machine may have more than
one Domain Name but a given Domain Name points to only one
machine. For example, the following domain names can all refer
to the same machine, but each domain name can refer to no
more than one machine:
Usually, all of the machines on a given Network will
have the same thing as the right-hand portion of their Domain
Names (matisse.net in the examples above).
It is also possible for a Domain Name to exist but not be
connected to an actual machine. This is often done so that
a group or business can have an Internet e-mail address without
having to establish a real Internet site. In these cases,
some real Internet machine must handle the mail on behalf
of the listed Domain Name.
- (Electronic Mail) -- Messages, usually text, sent from
one person to another via computer. E-mail can also be sent
automatically to a large number of addresses (Mailing List).
- A very common method of networking computers in a LAN.
Ethernet will handle about 10,000,000 bits-per-second and
can be used with almost any kind of computer.
- (Frequently Asked Questions) -- FAQs are documents that
list and answer the most common questions on a particular
subject. There are hundreds of FAQs on subjects as diverse
as Pet Grooming and Cryptography. FAQs are usually written
by people who have tired of answering the same question over
- (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) -- A standard for transmitting
data on optical fiber cables at a rate of around 100,000,000
bits-per-second (10 times as fast as Ethernet, about
twice as fast as T-3).
- An Internet software tool for locating people on other
Internet sites. Finger is also sometimes used to give access
to non-personal information, but the most common use is to
see if a person has an account at a particular Internet site.
Many sites do not allow incoming Finger requests, but many
- Fire Wall
- A combination of hardware and software that separates a
LAN into two or more parts for security purposes.
- Originally, flame meant to carry forth in a passionate
manner in the spirit of honorable debate. Flames most often
involved the use of flowery language and flaming well was
an art form. More recently flame has come to refer to any
kind of derogatory comment no matter how witless or crude.
- Flame War
- When an online discussion degenerates into a series of
personal attacks against the debators, rather than discussion
of their positions. A heated exchange.
- (File Transfer Protocol) -- A very common method of moving
files between two Internet sites. FTP is a special way to
login to another Internet site for the purposes of
retrieving and/or sending files. There are many Internet sites
that have established publicly accessible repositories of
material that can be obtained using FTP, by logging in using
the account name anonymous, thus these sites are called anonymous
- The technical meaning is a hardware or software set-up
that translates between two dissimilar protocols, for example
Prodigy has a gateway that translates between its internal,
proprietary e-mail format and Internet e-mail format. Another,
sloppier meaning of gateway is to describe any mechanism for
providing access to another system, e.g. AOL might be called
a gateway to the Internet.
- (Graphic Interchange Format) -- A common format for image
files, especially suitable for images containing large areas
of the same color. GIF format files of simple images are often
smaller than the same file would be if stored in JPEG
format, but GIF format does not store photographic images
as well as JPEG.
- 1000 or 1024 Megabytes, depending on who is measuring.
- A widely successful method of making menus of material
available over the Internet. Gopher is a Client and
Server style program, which requires that the user
have a Gopher Client program. Although Gopher spread
rapidly across the globe in only a couple of years, it has
been largely supplanted by Hypertext, also known as WWW
(World Wide Web). There are still thousands of Gopher
Servers on the Internet and we can expect they will
remain for a while.
- As used in reference to the World Wide Web, hit
means a single request from a web browser for a single
item from a web server; thus in order for a web browser
to display a page that contains 3 graphics, 4 hits
would occur at the server: 1 for the HTML page, and
one for each of the 3 graphics.
hits are often used as a very rough measure of
load on a server, e.g. Our server has been getting 300,000
hits per month. Because each hit can represent
anything from a request for a tiny document (or even a request
for a missing document) all the way to a request that requires
some significant extra processing (such as a complex search
request), the actual load on a machine from 1 hit is almost
impossible to define.
- Home Page (or Homepage)
- Several meanings. Originally, the web page that
your browser is set to use when it starts up. The more
common meaning refers to the main web page for a business,
organization, person or simply the main page out of a collection
of web pages, e.g. Check out so-and-sos new Home
Another sloppier use of the term refers to practically any
web page as a homepage, e.g. That web site
has 65 homepages and none of them are interesting.
- Host Any computer on a network
that is a repository for services available to other computers
on the network. It is quite common to have one host
machine provide several services, such as WWW and USENET.
- (HyperText Markup Language) -- The coding language used
to create Hypertext documents for use on the World
Wide Web. HTML looks a lot like old-fashioned typesetting
code, where you surround a block of text with codes that indicate
how it should appear, additionally, in HTML you can specify
that a block of text, or a word, is linked to another file
on the Internet. HTML files are meant to be viewed using a
World Wide Web Client Program, such as Netscape
- (HyperText Transfer Protocol) -- The protocol for moving
hypertext files across the Internet. Requires
a HTTP client program on one end, and an HTTP server
program on the other end. HTTP is the most important protocol
used in the World Wide Web (WWW).
- Generally, any text that contains links to other documents
- words or phrases in the document that can be chosen by a
reader and which cause another document to be retrieved and
- (In My Humble Opinion) -- A shorthand appended to a comment
written in an online forum, IMHO indicates that the writer
is aware that they are expressing a debatable view, probably
on a subject already under discussion. One of may such shorthands
in common use online, especially in discussion forums.
- (Upper case I) The vast collection of inter-connected
networks that all use the TCP/IP protocols and that evolved
from the ARPANET of the late 60s and early 70s.
The Internet now (July 1995) connects roughly 60,000 independent
networks into a vast global internet.
- (Lower case i) Any time you connect 2 or more networks
together, you have an internet - as in inter-national or inter-state.
- A private network inside a company or organization
that uses the same kinds of software that you would find on
the public Internet, but that is only for internal
As the Internet has become more popular many of the tools
used on the Internet are being used in private networks, for
example, many companies have web servers that are available
only to employees. Note that an Intranet may not actually
be an internet -- it may simply be a
- IP Number
- (Internet Protocol Number) -- Sometimes called a dotted
quad. A unique number consisting of 4 parts separated by dots,
Every machine that is on the Internet has a unique IP number
- if a machine does not have an IP number, it is not really
on the Internet. Most machines also have one or more Domain
Names that are easier for people to remember.
- (Internet Relay Chat) -- Basically a huge multi-user live
chat facility. There are a number of major IRC servers
around the world which are linked to each other. Anyone can
create a channel and anything that anyone types in a given
channel is seen by all others in the channel. Private channels
can (and are) created for multi-person conference calls.
- (Integrated Services Digital Network) -- Basically a way
to move more data over existing regular phone lines. ISDN
is rapidly becoming available to much of the USA and in most
markets it is priced very comparably to standard analog phone
circuits. It can provide speeds of roughly 128,000 bits-per-second
over regular phone lines. In practice, most people will be
limited to 56,000 or 64,000 bits-per-second.
- (Internet Service Provider) -- An institution that provides
access to the Internet in some form, usually for money.
- Java is a network-oriented programming language invented
by Sun Microsystems that is specifically designed for writing
programs that can be safely downloaded to your computer through
the Internet and immediately run without fear of viruses or
other harm to your computer or files. Using small Java programs
(called "Applets"), Web pages can include functions
such as animations, calculators, and other fancy tricks.
We can expect to see a huge variety of features added to the
Web using Java, since you can write a Java program to do almost
anything a regular computer program can do, and then include
that Java program in a Web page.
- (Java Development Kit) -- A software development package
from Sun Microsystems that implements the basic set of tools
needed to write, test and debug Java applications and
- (Joint Photographic Experts Group) -- JPEG is most commonly
mentioned as a format for image files. JPEG format is preferred
to the GIF format for photographic images as opposed
to line art or simple logo art.
- A thousand bytes. Actually, usually 1024 (2^10) bytes.
- (Local Area Network) -- A computer network limited to the
immediate area, usually the same building or floor of a building.
- Leased Line
- Refers to a phone line that is rented for exclusive 24-hour,
7 -days-a-week use from your location to another location.
The highest speed data connections require a leased line.
- The most common kind of maillist, "Listserv" is
a registered trademark of L-Soft international, Inc. Listservs
originated on BITNET but they are now common on the
- Noun or a verb. Noun: The account name used to gain access
to a computer system. Not a secret (contrast with Password).
Verb: The act of entering into a computer system, e.g. Login
to the WELL and then go to the GBN conference.
- (or Mailing List) A (usually automated) system that
allows people to send e-mail to one address, whereupon
their message is copied and sent to all of the other subscribers
to the maillist. In this way, people who have many different
kinds of e-mail access can participate in discussions together.
- A million bytes. Actually, technically, 1024 kilobytes.
- (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) -- The standard
for attaching non-text files to standard Internet mail messages.
Non-text files include graphics, spreadsheets, formatted word-processor
documents, sound files, etc.
An email program is said to be MIME Compliant if it can both
send and receive files using the MIME standard. When non-text
files are sent using the MIME standard they are converted
(encoded) into text - although the resulting text is not really
readable. Generally speaking the MIME standard is a way of
specifying both the type of file being sent (e.g. a Quicktime
video file), and the method that should be used to turn it
back into its original form.
Besides email software, the MIME standard is also universally
used by Web Servers to identify the files they are
sending to Web Clients, in this way new file formats
can be accommodated simply by updating the Browsers
list of pairs of MIME-Types and appropriate software for handling
- Generally speaking, to mirror is to maintain
an exact copy of something. Probably the most common use of
the term on the Internet refers to mirror sites
which are web sites, or FTP sites that maintain
exact copies of material originated at another location, usually
in order to provide more widespread access to the resource.
Another common use of the term mirror refers to
an arrangement where information is written to more than one
hard disk simultaneously, so that if one disk fails, the computer
keeps on working without losing anything.
- (MOdulator, DEModulator) -- A device that you connect to
your computer and to a phone line, that allows the computer
to talk to other computers through the phone system. Basically,
modems do for computers what a telephone does for humans.
- (Mud, Object Oriented) -- One of several kinds of multi-user
role-playing environments, so far only text-based.
- The first WWW browser that was available for the
Macintosh, Windows, and UNIX all with the same interface.
Mosaic really started the popularity of the Web. The source-code
to Mosaic has been licensed by several companies and there
are several other pieces of software as good or better than
Mosaic, most notably, Netscape.
- (Multi-User Dungeon or Dimension) -- A (usually text-based)
multi-user simulation environment. Some are purely for fun
and flirting, others are used for serious software development,
or education purposes and all that lies in between. A significant
feature of most MUDs is that users can create things that
stay after they leave and which other users can interact with
in their absence, thus allowing a world to be built gradually
- (Multi-User Simulated Environment) -- One kind of MUD -
usually with little or no violence.
- The etiquette on the Internet.
- Derived from the term citizen, referring to a citizen of
the Internet, or someone who uses networked resources.
The term connotes civic responsibility and participation.
- A WWW Browser and the name of a company. The Netscape
(tm) browser was originally based on the Mosaic program
developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications
(NCSA). Netscape has grown in features rapidly and is widely
recognized as the best and most popular web browser. Netscape
corporation also produces web server software.
Netscape provided major improvements in speed and interface
over other browsers, and has also engendered debate by creating
new elements for the HTML language used by Web pages
-- but the Netscape extensions to HTML are not universally
supported. The main author of Netscape, Mark Andreessen, was
hired away from the NCSA by Jim Clark, and they founded a
company called Mosaic Communications and soon changed the
name to Netscape Communications Corporation.
- Any time you connect 2 or more computers together so that
they can share resources, you have a computer network. Connect
2 or more networks together and you have an internet.
- The name for discussion groups on USENET.
- (Networked Information Center) -- Generally, any office
that handles information for a network. The most famous of
these on the Internet is the InterNIC, which is where new
domain names are registered.
Another definition: NIC also refers to Network Interface Card
which plugs into a computer and adapts the network interface
to the appropriate standard. ISA, PCI, and PCMCIA cards are
all examples of NICs.
- (Network News Transport Protocol) -- The protocol used
by client and server software to carry USENET
postings back and forth over a TCP/IP network.
If you are using any of the more common software such as Netscape,
Nuntius, Internet Explorer, etc. to participate in newsgroups
then you are benefiting from an NNTP connection.
- Any single computer connected to a network.
- Packet Switching
- The method used to move data around on the Internet.
In packet switching, all the data coming out of a machine
is broken up into chunks, each chunk has the address of where
it came from and where it is going. This enables chunks of
data from many different sources to co-mingle on the same
lines, and be sorted and directed to different routes by special
machines along the way. This way many people can use the same
lines at the same time.
- A code used to gain access to a locked system. Good passwords
contain letters and non-letters and are not simple combinations
such as virtue7. A good password might be:
- A (usually small) piece of software that adds features
to a larger piece of software. Common examples are plug-ins
for the Netscape® browser and web server.
Adobe Photoshop® also uses plug-ins.
The idea behind plug-ins is that a small piece of software
is loaded into memory by the larger program, adding a new
feature, and that users need only install the few plug-ins
that they need, out of a much larger pool of possibilities.
Plug-ins are usually created by people other than the publishers
of the software the plug-in works with.
- (Point of Presence, also Post Office Protocol) -- Two commonly
used meanings: Point of Presence and Post Office Protocol.
A Point of Presence usually means a city or location where
a network can be connected to, often with dial up phone lines.
So if an Internet company says they will soon have a POP in
Belgrade, it means that they will soon have a local phone
number in Belgrade and/or a place where leased lines can connect
to their network. A second meaning, Post Office Protocol refers
to the way e-mail software such as Eudora gets mail from a
mail server. When you obtain a SLIP, PPP, or shell account
you almost always get a POP account with it, and it is this
POP account that you tell your e-mail software to use to get
- 3 meanings. First and most generally, a place where information
goes into or out of a computer, or both. E.g. the serial port
on a personal computer is where a modem would be connected.
On the Internet port often refers to a number that is part
of a URL, appearing after a colon (:) right after the
domain name. Every service on an Internet server
listens on a particular port number on that server. Most services
have standard port numbers, e.g. Web servers normally listen
on port 80. Services can also listen on non-standard ports,
in which case the port number must be specified in a URL when
accessing the server, so you might see a URL of the form:
shows a gopher server running on a non-standard port (the
standard gopher port is 70).
Finally, port also refers to translating a piece of software
to bring it from one type of computer system to another, e.g.
to translate a Windows program so that is will run on a Macintosh.
- Usually used as a marketing term to described a Web site
that is or is intended to be the first place people see when
using the Web. Typically a "Portal site" has a catalog of
web sites, a search engine, or both. A Portal site may also
offer email and other service to entice people to use that
site as their main "point of entry" (hence "portal") to the
- A single message entered into a network communications
i.e. A single message posted to a newsgroup or message
- (Point to Point Protocol) -- Most well known as a protocol
that allows a computer to use a regular telephone line and
a modem to make TCP/IP connections and thus
be really and truly on the Internet.
- (Public Switched Telephone Network) -- The regular old-fashioned
- (Request For Comments) -- The name of the result and the
process for creating a standard on the Internet. New
standards are proposed and published on line, as a Request
For Comments. The Internet Engineering Task Force is a consensus-building
body that facilitates discussion, and eventually a new standard
is established, but the reference number/name for the standard
retains the acronym RFC, e.g. the official standard for e-mail
is RFC 822.
- A special-purpose computer (or software package) that handles
the connection between 2 or more networks. Routers
spend all their time looking at the destination addresses
of the packets passing through them and deciding which
route to send them on.
- Security Certificate
- A chunk of information (often stored as a text file) that
is used by the SSL protocol to establish a secure connection.
Security Certificates contain information about who it belongs
to, who it was issued by, a unique serial number or other
unique identification, valid dates, and an encrypted fingerprint
that can be used to verify the contents of the certificate.
In order for an SSL connection to be created both sides must
have a valid Security Certificate.
- A computer, or a software package, that provides a specific
kind of service to client software running on other
computers. The term can refer to a particular piece of software,
such as a WWW server, or to the machine on which the
software is running, e.g.Our mail server is down today, thats
why e-mail isnt getting out. A single server machine
could have several different server software packages running
on it, thus providing many different servers to clients
on the network.
- Serial Line Internet Protocol) -- A standard for using
a regular telephone line (a serial line) and a modem
to connect a computer as a real Internet site. SLIP
is gradually being replaced by PPP.
- (Switched Multimegabit Data Service) -- A new standard
for very high-speed data transfer.
- (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) -- The main protocol used
to send electronic mail on the Internet. SMTP consists of
a set of rules for how a program sending mail and a program
receiving mail should interact.
Almost all Internet email is sent and received by clients
and servers using SMTP, thus if one wanted to set up
an email server on the Internet one would look for email server
software that supports SMTP.
- (Simple Network Management Protocol) -- A set of standards
for communication with devices connected to a TCP/IP network.
Examples of these devices include routers, hubs, and
A device is said to be SNMP compatible if it can
be monitored and/or controlled using SNMP messages. SNMP messages
are known as PDUs - Protocol Data Units.
Devices that are SNMP compatible contain SNMP agent
software to receive, send, and act upon SNMP messages.
Software for managing devices via SNMP are available for every
kind of commonly used computer and are often bundled along
with the device they are designed to manage. Some SNMP software
is designed to handle a wide variety of devices.
- Spam (or Spamming)
- An inappropriate attempt to use a mailing list,
or USENET or other networked communications facility
as if it was a broadcast medium (which it is not) by sending
the same message to a large number of people who didnt
ask for it. The term probably comes from a famous Monty Python
skit which featured the word spam repeated over and over.
The term may also have come from someones low opinion
of the food product with the same name, which is generally
perceived as a generic content-free waste of resources. (Spam
is a registered trademark of Hormel Corporation, for its processed
i.e.. John spammed 50 USENET groups by posting the same message
- (Structured Query Language) -- A specialized programming
language for sending queries to databases. Most industrial-strength
and many smaller database applications can be addressed using
SQL. Each specific application will have its own version of
SQL implementing features unique to that application, but
all SQL-capable databases support a common subset of SQL.
- (Secure Sockets Layer) -- A protocol designed by Netscape
Communications to enable encrypted, authenticated communications
across the Internet.
SSL used mostly (but not exclusively) in communications between
web browsers and web servers. URLs
that begin with https indicate that an SSL connection
will be used. SSL provides 3 important things: Privacy, Authentication,
and Message Integrity.
In an SSL connection each side of the connection must have
a Security Certificate, which each sides software
sends to the other. Each side then encrypts what it sends
using information from both its own and the other sides
Certificate, ensuring that only the intended recipient can
de-crypt it, and that the other side can be sure the data
came from the place it claims to have come from, and that
the message has not been tampered with.
- (System Operator) -- Anyone responsible for the physical
operations of a computer system or network resource. A System
Administrator decides how often backups and maintenance should
be performed and the System Operator performs those tasks.
- A leased-line connection capable of carrying data
at 1,544,000 bits-per-second. At maximum theoretical
capacity, a T-1 line could move a megabyte in less
than 10 seconds. That is still not fast enough for full-screen,
full-motion video, for which you need at least 10,000,000
bits-per-second. T-1 is the fastest speed commonly used to
connect networks to the Internet.
- A leased-line connection capable of carrying data
at 44,736,000 bits-per-second. This is more than enough to
do full-screen, full-motion video.
- (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) -- This
is the suite of protocols that defines the Internet.
Originally designed for the UNIX operating system,
TCP/IP software is now available for every major kind of computer
operating system. To be truly on the Internet, your
computer must have TCP/IP software.
- The command and program used to login from one Internet
site to another. The telnet command/program gets you to the
login: prompt of another host.
- 1000 gigabytes.
- A device that allows you to send commands to a computer
somewhere else. At a minimum, this usually means a keyboard
and a display screen and some simple circuitry. Usually you
will use terminal software in a personal computer - the software
pretends to be (emulates) a physical terminal and allows you
to type commands to a computer somewhere else.
- Terminal Server
- A special purpose computer that has places to plug in many
modems on one side, and a connection to a LAN
or host machine on the other side. Thus the terminal
server does the work of answering the calls and passes the
connections on to the appropriate node. Most terminal
servers can provide PPP or SLIP services if
connected to the Internet.
- (User Datagram Protocol) -- One of the protocols for data
transfer that is part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols.
UDP is a stateless protocol in that UDP makes
no provision for acknowledgement of packets received.
- A computer operating system (the basic software running
on a computer, underneath things like word processors and
spreadsheets). UNIX is designed to be used by many people
at the same time (it is multi-user) and has TCP/IP
built-in. It is the most common operating system for servers
on the Internet.
- (Uniform Resource Locator) -- The standard way to give
the address of any resource on the Internet that is part of
the World Wide Web (WWW). A URL looks like this:
or news:new.newusers.questions, etc.
The most common way to use a URL is to enter into a WWW browser
program, such as Netscape, or Lynx.
- A world-wide system of discussion groups, with comments
passed among hundreds of thousands of machines. Not all USENET
machines are on the Internet, maybe half. USENET is
completely decentralized, with over 10,000 discussion areas,
- (Unix to Unix Encoding) -- A method for converting files
from Binary to ASCII (text) so that they can
be sent across the Internet via e-mail.
- (Very Easy Rodent Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized
Archives) -- Developed at the University of Nevada, Veronica
is a constantly updated database of the names of almost every
menu item on thousands of gopher servers. The Veronica
database can be searched from most major gopher menus.
- (Virtual Private Network) -- Usually refers to a network
in which some of the parts are connected using the public
Internet, but the data sent across the Internet is
encrypted, so the entire network is "virtually" private.
A typical example would be a company network where there
are two offices in different cities. Using the Internet
the two offices mereg their networks into one network, but
encrypt traffic that uses the Internet link.
- (Wide Area Information Servers) -- A commercial software
package that allows the indexing of huge quantities of information,
and then making those indices searchable across networks
such as the Internet. A prominent feature of WAIS is
that the search results are ranked (scored) according to how
relevant the hits are, and that subsequent searches can find
more stuff like that last batch and thus refine the search
- (Wide Area Network) -- Any internet or network
that covers an area larger than a single building or campus.
- (World Wide Web) -- Frequently used (incorrectly) when
referring to "The Internet", WWW has two major meanings -
First, loosely used: the whole constellation of resources
that can be accessed using Gopher, FTP, HTTP, telnet, USENET,
WAIS and some other tools. Second, the universe of hypertext
servers (HTTP servers) which are the servers that allow
text, graphics, sound files, etc. to be mixed together.
Country Domain Names
Currently, there are over 200 recognized Country Domain names.
Two-letter abbreviations that represent the country names are used
in addresses seen on the Internet.
.ae United Arab Emirates
.ag Antigua and Barbuda
.bn Brunei Darussalam
.ci Cote D'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)
.cr Costa Rica
.cz Czech Republic
.do Dominican Republic
.fo Faroe Islands
.gb Great Britain
.hk Hong Kong
.kr Korea (South)
.lc Saint Lucia
.lk Sri Lanka
.nc New Caledonia (French)
.nz New Zealand
.pf Polynesia (French)
.pg Papua New Guinea
.ru Russian Federation
.sa Saudi Arabia
.sk Slovak Republic
.su USSR (former)
.sv El Salvador
.tt Trinidad and Tobago
.uk United Kingdom
.us United States
.vi Virgin Islands (USA)
.za South Africa